Although most of are found of fruits and vegetables and also love to eat them, it would be difficult to give a definition for fruit. In botanist term the definition is easier; “a fruit is a reproductive structure of an angiosperm which develops from the ovary and accessory tissue, which surrounds and protects the seed”. Fruits are important in seed dispersal.
It does not matter what we may call our nutritious dietary components, in botany what constitutes a fruit is quite straightforward, and this lab looks at the structure and classification of fruits.
The process of fertilization carries both seed and fruit development. While the seeds develop from ovules, the ovary tissue undergoes a number of series complex changes which result in the development of the good and fresh fruit. Many fruits are "fleshy" and contain sugars which attract animals that then disperse the enclosed seeds to the new locations. Other, non-fleshy, fruits use other mechanisms for seed dispersal.
Fruits can be classified in to four types as follows:
Simple fruits could be either dry or fleshy and result from the ripening of a compound or simple ovary with only one pistil. Dry fruits could also be either dehiscent (opening to discharge seeds), or indehiscent (not opening to discharge seeds).
An aggregate fruit is otherwise called as etgerio, develops from a flower with the numerous simple pistils. A good example is raspberry, whose simple fruits are termed drupelets because each is like a good small drupe attached to receptacle. In some of the bramble fruits (example blackberry) the receptacle is elongate and part of the ripe fruits, for making blackberry an aggregate-accessory fruit.
A multiple fruit is formed from a cluster of flowers called an inflorescence. Each flower does produce a fruit, but these mature into a single mass. Examples are mulberry, pineapple, and breadfruit.
Accessory fruits are composed of material not just form the ovary but also participate to form other parts of the flower such as the receptacle. To understand even better an accessory fruit is a fruit where the fleshy part is derived not form the ovary but form some adjacent tissue
Few very good examples of accessory fruits are strawberry, watermelon, apple etc. Most accessory fruits are simple fruits that are developed from inferior ovaries.
The following table describes the major types of fruits:
(derived from a single ovary)
(does not split open when ripe)
(splits open when ripe)
|Drupe, Pome, Berry, Pepo
||Akene, Nut, Caryopsis
||Legume, Silique, Capsule, Follicle
(derived from the varies of several flowers united into a single mass)
|Strawberry, Blackberry, Rraspberry
(derived from numerous ovaries of a single flower that are scattered over a single receptacle and later unite to form a single fruit)