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MEDITERRANEAN FRUITS


Fruits in Mediterranean category are not hardy to extreme cold, as the preceding temperate fruits are, yet tolerate some frost and could have a modest chilling requirement. Notable among these are natives of the Mediterranean Fruits:

Date Palm

  • As is carries a long history of cultivation for fruit, its exact native distribution is difficult to find, but the date palm probably originated somewhere in the desert oases of the North Africa, and perhaps also in the southwest Asia.
  • It is a medium-sized tree, 15-25 m tall, often clumped with the several trunks from a single root system, but also often grows singly.
  • The leaves are very pinnate, up to 3 m long, with spines on the petiole and also about 150 leaflets; The leaflets grow between 30 cm long and 2 cm broad.
  • They are oval-cylindrical, 3-7 cm long, and 2-3 cm diameter, yellow-brown in colour, and contain a single seed but about 2-2.5 cm long and 6-8 mm thick.
  • Three main types of date Palm exist; soft, semi-dry, and dry. The type of fruit actually depends on the glucose, fructose and sucrose content.
  • Natural pollination requires about an equal number of the male and female plants. However, with assistance one male can palletize about 50 females.
  • Since the males are of value only as palletizes, this allows the growers to use their resources for many more fruit producing female plants.
  • Some growers do not maintain any male plants as male flowers become available at the local markets at pollination time.

Fig

  • Figs (Ficus) are a cool genus of about 800 species of the woody trees, shrubs and vines in the family of Moraceae, native is throughout the tropics with a few species extending into the warm temperate zone.
  • A fig fruit is derived from an especially of adapted flower.
  • The fruit is in a bulbous shape (an accessory fruit called a syconium) with the small opening (the ostiole) in the end and a hollow area inside lined with the small red edible seeds.
  • The fruit/flower is pollinated by small wasps that crawl through the opening to fertilize the fruit.

Grape

  • A grape is the fruit of a vine in family Vitaceae.
  • It is most commonly used for making grape juice, jelly, wine and raisins, or can be eaten raw also.
  • Grapes constitute approximately 50% of all fruit grown in this world.
  • Many species of grape exist including:

Compounds such as resveratrol have comparatively been discovered in grapes. Resveratrol and the other grape compounds have been positively linked to the fighting cancer, heart disease, degenerative nerve disease and help other ailments. Although many people have incorrectly assumed that red grapes have the most health benefits, in fact grapes of all colors have comparable benefits. Red wine has health benefits not found in white wine because many of these compounds are found in skins of the grapes and only red wine is fermented with the skins.

Jujube

  • It has the native to China, where it has also been cultivated for over 4,000 years.
  • The tree can reach a height of 5 to 12 m, is ornamental, with shiny-green leaves, and thorns sometime.
  • The early-picked fruit is smooth-green, and also resembles the consistency and taste of an apple, but as it matures more, the color could be darkens to purplish-black and it becomes quite wrinkled, when it tastes like a date, hence the name Chinese date.
  • Unlike most of the other species in genus, it tolerates fairly cold winters too, surviving temperatures down to about -15°C.

Olive

  • They are evergreen, with a small, entire leaves arranged oppositely. The fruit is also a drupe.
  • The wild olive is a normally small tree or bush of rather straggling growth, with thorny branches and opposite to oblong pointed leaves, dark grayish-green above and, it is in the young state, hoary beneath with whitish scales;
  • The small white flowers, with four-cleft calyx and corolla, two stamens and bifid stigma, are also borne generally on the last year's wood, in racemes springing from the axils of the leaves;
  • Much of the inferior oil owes its bad quality to the carelessness of the proprietor of the trees.
  • In southern Europe the olive harvest is in the winter months, continuing for several weeks;
  • But the time varies in each country, and also with the season and the kinds cultivated. The amount of oil contained in the fruit differs much in the various sorts; per carp usually yields from 60 to 70%.

Pomegranate

  • The pomegranate is believed to have the originated in the area from Iran east to northern India, but has been cultivated around the Mediterranean for very long (several millennia) that it’s true native range is not only accurately known.
  • The leaves are opposite or sub-opposite, glossy, narrow oblong, entire, 3-7 cm long and 2 cm broad.
  • The flowers are very bright red, 3 cm diameter, with five petals around (often more on cultivated plants).
  • The fruit is known between an orange and a grapefruit in size, 7-12 cm diameter; it has a thick reddish skin and many seeds.
  • The edible part is a brilliant red seed pulp surrounding the seeds.
  • The only other species in the genus, Socotra Pomegranate Punica protopunica, is endemic on the island of Socotra.
  • It differs in having pink (not red) flowers and smaller, less sweet fruit.
  • The arils (seed casings) of the pomegranate are normally consumed raw.
  • The entire seed is eaten, though the fleshy outer portion of the seed is also part that is desired.
  • The taste differs depending on variety of pomegranate and its state of the ripeness.
  • The acidic juice of pomegranates is used in Indian cookery; thickened and sweetened it makes grenadine syrup, used in cocktail mixing.
  • Pomegranate seeds are sometimes used as a spice.

fruitCitron

  • The Citron Citrus medica is a species of citrus fruit. It is characterized by its thick rind and small sections.
  • Generally, it is eaten preserved or in bakery goods, such as fruitcakes. (The candied peel rather than the fruit is often used in cooking.)
  • The citron is known as the etrog by religious Jews, who use it in a ceremony on their Sukkoth holiday each fall.
  • In many non-English languages, a normal lemon is called a "citron" and a lime is called a "lemon", so there is a high chance for getting things mixed up during translations.

Grapefruit

  • The grapefruit is a sub-tropical citrus tree grown for its fruit.
  • The evergreen tree is usually found at around 5-6 m tall, although it can reach 13-15 m.
  • The leaves are dark green, long (up to 15 cm) and thin. It produces 5 cm white four-petal led flowers.
  • The fruit is yellow-skinned, largely oblate and ranges in diameter from 10-15 cm and has an acidic yellow segmented pulp.
  • Grapefruit can have a number of interactions with drugs, often increasing the effective potency of compounds.
  • Grapefruit seed extract is a strong antimicrobial with proven activity against bacteria and fungi.
  • Grapefruit formed a core part of the so-called grapefruit diet, under the pretext of being able to increase the metabolism and burn fat since grapefruit have a low glycemic index.

Lemon

  • Lemons are the citrus fruit from the tree Citrus x lemon, a hybrid of cultivated origin.
  • They are cultivated primarily for their juice, though the pulp and rind are also used, primarily in cooking or mixing.
  • Lemon juice is about 5% citric acid, which gives lemons a sour taste.
  • This is a small tree, to 6 m (20 ft) but usually smaller. The branches are thorny, and form an open crown. The leaves are elliptical-acuminate.
  • Flowers are violet and streaked in the interior and white on the outside.
  • Both lemons and limes are regularly served as lemonade (natural lemon with water and sugar) or limeade, its equivalent, or as a garnish for drinks such as cola with a slice either inside or on the rim of the glass.
  • Lemon juice is typically dripped onto battered fish dishes in restaurants in the United Kingdom and other countries—the acidic juice neutralizes the taste of amines in fish.
  • Lemon juice contains approximately 500 milligrams of vitamin C and 50 grams of citric acid per liter.


 


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